The Trans Fat Ban – Is High-Fructose Corn Syrup Next?by Nirupama Shankar, PT, MHS | August 1, 2008
On July 25, 2008, Governor Schwarzenegger made it official — California would be the first state to ban trans fat. Food providers have been given a year after which the law requires them to replace hydrogenated oils with healthier, naturally occurring oils such as soya, palm, and vegetable oils. The ban was prompted after the link between consumption of trans fat and diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and high levels of cholesterol was confirmed. A similar, but less publicized dietary villain exists — High Fructose Corn Syrup (HFCS).
The name may be slightly misleading to some -– the word corn may lead the consumer to believe that it is a naturally occurring substance, and fructose may lead one to confuse the compound HFCS with the fructose that occurs naturally in fruits. On the contrary, it is an artificial substance that uses extract from corn merely as a base. Corn extract is milled to form cornstarch, processed to form corn syrup (mainly glucose) and then modified by the addition of enzymes (alpha- and gluco-amylase, and isomerases); that convert glucose to fructose. The production of this chemical also involves other complex steps, including genetic modification of the enzymes used to make them more stable at higher temperatures. Despite the highly synthetic nature of HFCS, many manufacturers are allowed to use “All Natural” or “100% Natural” labeling in products that contain HFCS.
Published literature has suggested a significant correlation between the consumption of foods containing HFCS and obesity, diabetes and high cholesterol. Fructose also interferes with the absorption of essential minerals like Copper, magnesium and iodine. After fructose is absorbed in the intestine, it metabolized in the liver. When the liver processes large amounts of fructose, byproducts such as triglycerides, carbon molecules and other precursors to lipid formation are released. These freely circulating triglycerides and lipid molecules aggregate over time and are ultimately converted to fat — which leads to weight gain and obesity. The by products of fructose metabolism also increase the risk of blood clots, high cholesterol and heart disease. Fructose (when consumed in high concentration) also limits the cells’ capability to absorb glucose by interfering with the insulin receptors. This causes high blood glucose levels, which may convert to diabetes.
Scientists agree that the evidence is not conclusive, and further research is necessary. However, it is also true that the consumption of HFCS has increased greater than 1000% from 1970 to 2007. The large consumption amount (USDA approximates 40 lbs per capita in 2007) is certainly alarming. Another disturbing aspect is the unexpected places where HFCS shows up. It is fairly common knowledge that juices and sodas are sweetened with it instead of sugar, but not everyone expects HCFS to be present in breads, soups and salad dressings!
Despite the indications that HFCS is potentially detrimental to health and may be responsible for obesity and heart disease, a ban is unlikely (read impossible) to come by anytime soon. HFCS is cheaper and easier to transport than sugar, may be used in solid or liquid form — so it can be used in a variety of food products. High tariff placed on sugar exported from other countries and active lobbying by the corn industry magnates will sustain and encourage the large-scale production of HFCS. Ultimately, it is up to us to control our personal health by choosing to eat healthier and by making informed choices. We can stay in touch with the literature and expert opinion, and then decide what we want to include in our diet.
Bray, G.A., Nielsen, S.J., Popkin, B.M. (2004). Consumption of high-fructose corn syrup in beverages may play a role in the epidemic of obesity. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 79(4), 537-543.
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